Patient-relevant endpoints – the essence of benefit assessments

What are “patient-relevant endpoints”? What are the categories? What are surrogate endpoints? And what does IQWiG do with the endpoint data from clinical studies? These fundamental questions are answered in the following multi-part infographic.

What are “endpoints”?

Endpoints are criteria to measure the efficacy, tolerability, usefulness and harmfulness of treatments, e.g. drugs. They are shown as circled dots in the entire graph.

patient-relevant endpoints

Focus on the patient

Patient-relevant endpoints fall into the categories of mortality, morbidity, side effects and health-related quality of life. We explain the questions behind the categories and the aspects IQWiG considers in its benefit assessments.

patient-relevant endpoints

What does IQWiG do with the endpoints?

IQWiG assesses the benefit and harm of medical interventions, not only their safety and efficacy. This graph explains the difference and shows IQWiG’s approach.

patient-relevant endpoints

The 4 categories of patient-relevant endpoints

The following 4 pictures show what is behind the 4 categories of mortality, morbidity, side effects and health-related quality of life.

patient-relevant endpoints
Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte
Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte
Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte

Surrogate endpoints and accelerated approval

Many studies record surrogates instead of patient-relevant endpoints. The following 3 pictures explain what surrogate endpoints are, when they are useful and when they are not, why they are more common in accelerated approval procedures and why they can make study results more unreliable.

Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte
Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte
Infografik Patientenrelevante Endpunkte
Infographic Patient-relevant endpoints

Infographic Patient-relevant endpoints

download infographic

Download image in high resolution

Picture of

Jens Flintrop

press officer

Picture of

Susanne Breuer

press officer

Info Service

Subscribe to daily updated information on projects, calls for tender, and events as well as our press releases.

Contact form

Questions about commissions, publications and press releases can be sent to us via this form.